## Banc de binary forum review

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All functions which return a result of type float are implemented as macros, although many of them exist as TIOS entries. This is done because the GCC convention for returning floating point values as function results differs from the convention expected by the TIOS.

This note is mainly unimportant from the user's point of view. The result is always in radians. If the argument is not in range from -1 to 1, acos will return NAN.

If the argument is not in range from -1 to 1, asin will return NAN. So, the result is in the range - pi to pi. If both x and y are zeros, atan2 returns NAN. It recognizes the character representation of a floating point number, made up of the following:.

This limitation is caused by using some TIOS calls which needs such number format. Anyway, it is very easy to "preprocess" any string to satisfy this convention before calling to atof by routine like the following assuming that c is a char variable, and i is an integer variable:. It returns NAN if the input string cannot be converted i. In fact, this function returns the same value as the argument, but with different interpretation. This function, in a way, performs typecasting from a bcd type to an ordinary float type.

At the fundamental level, bcdadd and fadd are the same routine. At the fundamental level, bcdbcd and flt are the same routine. At the fundamental level, bcdcmp and fcmp are the same routine. At the fundamental level, bcddiv and fdiv are the same routine. At the fundamental level, bcdlong and trunc are the same routine. At the fundamental level, bcdmul and fmul are the same routine. At the fundamental level, bcdneg and fneg are the same routine.

At the fundamental level, bcdsub and fsub are the same routine. See also sqrt and atan2. See sqrt , atan2 , sin and cos. At the fundamental level, fadd is exactly the same routine as bcdadd. This function may be useful as a comparison function for qsort function from stdlib. All relation operators applied to floating point types are implemented through implicite calls of this function. At the fundamental level, fcmp is exactly the same routine as bcdcmp.

All kind of zeros are equal from the aspect of comparation. Transfinite values are incomparable, and the result of fcmp is unpredictable usually 1, but this is not guarantee if any argument is transfinite.

At the fundamental level, fdiv is exactly the same routine as bcddiv. Also, it returns NAN if both arguments are zeros or infinities. Yet one deprecated macro. FEXP ,5 represents number 2. Anyway, you don't need to use FEXP any more: The first part is true; the second is not. More precise, FEXP shifts m to the left enough number of times to produce correct normalized mantissa see bcd for more info. For more description about internal format of floating point numbers, see bcd.

This function, in a way, performs typecasting from an ordinary float type to a bcd type. Beware that returned value is not an lvalue ordinary C functions never return lvalues, by the way , so you can not do something like.

This routine performs the same operation as casting a long integer value to float type using the ' float ' typecast operator, but it is kept here to allow compatibility with older programs created before TIGCC introduced floating point operators i. This function is automatically called when any floating point function is called with a long integer argument, to force a promotion of an integer to a floating point type.

In other words, integer values will be automatically promoted to the floating point type when necessary. Also, you can calculate sin a where a is an integer. In both cases, flt will be called automatically to perform the promotion. At the fundamental level, flt is exactly the same routine as bcdbcd. FLT is a now deprecated macro which is kept here only to retain compatibility with programs which are written with older releases of TIGCC before 0.

Now, FLT x,y will simply be translated to x. FLT ,15 will be translated to Anyway, you don't need to use the FLT macro any more. At the fundamental level, fmul is exactly the same routine as bcdmul. This routine performs the same operation as the C '-' unary minus operator applied to a floating point operand, but it is kept here to allow compatibility with older programs created before TIGCC introduced floating point operators i. At the fundamental level, fneg is exactly the same routine as bcdneg.

It checks whether the floating point with the exponent exponent and the mantissa pointed to by mantissa is reducable to an integer. It checks whether the integer part of the floating point with the exponent exponent and the mantissa pointed to by mantissa is an odd number. Also returns TRUE if the integer part is zero, although zero is not an odd number.

This routine is analogous to frexp in ANSI C math library, except using base ten rather than base two. This routine performs the same operation as the C '-' operator applied to floating point operands, but it is kept here to allow compatibility with older programs created before TIGCC introduced floating point operators i.

At the fundamental level, fsub is exactly the same routine as bcdsub. This is equivalent to the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle, if the lengths of the two sides are x and y. However, as far as I know, you need not to call this function explicitely anywhere in your program, because TIOS does it in the boot code.

As this function is removed from AMS 2. This routine performs a set of arithmetic operations on binary coded decimal floating point values.

Operands may be in MC registers, in the memory, or in "floating point registers" they are, in fact, memory locations on the stack frame from the aspect of the emulator. It may give additional flexibility for ASM programmers sometimes the argument may be in the register, sometimes in the memory, etc.

But in C, the arguments are always on the stack, so this flexibility is not necessary. Infinite values are produced when the result is unbounded for example dividing by zero , or in case of overflow. These two special numbers are treated very similarly in TIOS.

It calculates the arc sine, the arc cosine or the arc tangent of the floating point value pointed to by xptr , and stores the result in the floating point destination pointed to by result. Parameter option determines which inverse trigonometric function will be calculated: I don't know whether these values are the only legal values for option , but I believe so.

The parameter xptr is not a pointer to const value. This means that the value pointed to by it may be changed. In normal cases this would not appear, but this need not to be true if the structure pointed to by xptr contains wrong values for example, arguments out of the function domain, unnormalized values, etc.

Strictly speaking, ldexp10 is a macro, not a function. This routine is analogous to ldexp in ANSI C math library, except using base ten rather than base two. It stores the integer in a floating point destination pointed to by ipart and returns the fractional part of x. If both x and y are zeros, pow will return 1. If x is negative, the correct result will be produced only if y can be represented as a whole number, or as a fraction with odd denominator; otherwise, pow will return a garbage not NAN which sometimes even not satisfy the floating point BCD format digits greater than 9 etc.

Rounds the floating point number to 12 significant digits, throwing an error if unsuccessful. TIOS always does such rounding before storing a floating point value to a variable.

See also notes related to sin and cos. If the argument is negative, there will be no error, but the result will be invalid. Also, it will return NAN if the argument is so big that reducing to the main period can't be performed without complete losing of significant digits i. It calculates simultaneously the sine, the cosine and the tangent of the floating point value pointed to by xptr , and stores the results in floating point destinations pointed to by sine , cosine and tangent.

Parameter option is not very clear to me: I only noticed that the tangent will not be calculated if option is not equal to 4.

I included the description of this routine here only due to completeness: Returns zero in a case of overflow. This routine performs the same operation as casting a floating point value to an int type using ' int ' , ' unsigned int ' and ' long ' typecast operators, but it is kept here to allow compatibility with older programs created before TIGCC introduced floating point operators i.

This function is automatically called when any function which needs an integer is called with a floating point arguments, to force a truncation of a floating point value to an integer. In both cases, trunc will be called automatically to perform the truncation. At the fundamental level, trunc is exactly the same routine as bcdlong. FIVE is a predefined floating point constant with value 5.

FOUR is a predefined floating point constant with value 4. HALF is a predefined floating point constant with value 0. NAN is an acronyme of "Not a Number". TIOS generates NAN when nothing can be deduced about the magnitude of the result for example, when dividing zero by zero, or when substracting two infinities of the same sign.

Also, TIOS generates NAN when the argument of a function is out of legal range, excluding values of the argument which produces infinity results.