## C Programming Operators and Expressions

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In the C programming languageoperations can be performed on a bit level using bitwise operators. Bitwise operations are contrasted by byte-level operations which characterize the bitwise operators' logical counterparts, the AND, OR and NOT operators.

Instead of performing on individual bits, byte-level operators perform on strings of eight bits known as bytes at a time. The reason for this is that a byte is normally arithmetic and logical binary operators in c language smallest unit of addressable memory i. This applies to bitwise operators as well, which means that even though they operate on only one bit at a time they cannot accept anything smaller than a byte as their input. C provides six operators for bit manipulation.

The bitwise AND operator is a single ampersand: It is just a representation of AND which does its work on the bits of the operands rather than the truth value of the operands. Bitwise binary AND does the logical AND as shown in the table above of the bits in each position of a number in its binary form. The most significant bit of the first number is 1 and that of the second number is also 1 so the most significant bit of the result is 1; in the second most significant bit, the bit of second number is zero, so we have the result as 0.

Its result is a 1 if one of the either bits is 1 and zero only when both bits are 0. Its symbol is which can be called a pipe. The bitwise XOR exclusive or performs a logical XOR function, which is equivalent to adding two bits and discarding the carry. The result is zero only when we have two zeroes or two ones. Thus we get the bits inverted, for arithmetic and logical binary operators in c language bit 1 the result is bit 0 and conversely for every bit 0 we have a bit 1.

This operation should not be confused with logical negation! For its operation, it requires two operands. It shifts each bit in its left operand to the right.

The number following the operator decides the number arithmetic and logical binary operators in c language places the bits are shifted i.

Here blank spaces are generated simultaneously on the left when the bits are shifted to the right. When performed on an unsigned type, the operation performed is a logical shiftcausing the blanks to be filled by 0 s zeros. When performed on a signed arithmetic and logical binary operators in c language, the result is technically undefined and compiler dependant, [5] however most compilers will perform an arithmetic shiftcausing the blank to be filled with the sign bit of the left operand.

It shifts each bit in its left-hand operand to the left by the number of positions indicated by the right-hand operand. It works opposite to that of right shift operator. Blank spaces generated are filled up by zeroes as above. C provides a compound assignment operator for each binary arithmetic and bitwise operation i.

Each of the compound bitwise assignment operators perform the appropriate binary operation and store the result in the left operand. Four of the bitwise operators have equivalent logical operators. They are equivalent in that they have the same truth tables. However, logical operators treat each operand as having only one value, either true or false, rather arithmetic and logical binary operators in c language treating each bit of an operand as an independent value.

Please help rewrite this article from a descriptive, neutral point of viewand remove advice or instruction. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Bitwise AND passed, was: E Bitwise XOR passed, was: The C Programming Language 2nd ed. Regarded by many to be the authoritative reference on C. Retrieved 11 November Retrieved from " https: Binary arithmetic C programming language.