List of software package management systems
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These can be source directories or archives or binary package archive files as created by R CMD build --binary. Tilde-expansion will be done on file paths. If this is missing or a zero-length character vector, a listbox of available packages is presented where possible in an interactive R session.
If missing, defaults to the first element of. For more details on supported URL schemes see url. URL s of the contrib sections of best forex companies in south africa repositories.
Use this argument if your repository mirror is incomplete, e. Unused if a non- NULL available is supplied. Only supported if lib is of length one or missingso it is unambiguous where to install the Binaries and Sources Update packages. If this is not the case it is ignored, with a warning. Will be "source" except on Windows and some macOS builds: Used only for source installs. A character vector or a named list. If a character vector with no names is supplied, the elements are concatenated into a single string separated by a space and used as Binaries and Sources Update value for the --configure-args Binaries and Sources Update in the call to R CMD INSTALL.
If the character vector has names these are assumed to identify values for --configure-args for individual packages. This allows one to specify settings for an entire collection of packages which will be used Binaries and Sources Update any of those packages are to be installed.
These settings can therefore be re-used and act as default settings. A named list can be used also to the same effect, and that allows multi-element character strings for each package which are concatenated to a single string to be used as the value for --configure-args.
This is sometimes used to perform additional operations at the end of the package installation in addition to removing intermediate files.
Values greater than one are supported if the make command specified by Sys. This can also be used on Windows to install just the DLL s from a binary package, e. Can also be a named list of character vectors to be used as additional options, with names the respective package names. Alternatively, a character string giving the directory in which to save the outputs.
Ignored when installing from local files. Arguments to be passed to download. This is the main function to install packages. It takes a vector of names and a destination library, downloads the packages from the repositories and installs them.
If the library is omitted it defaults to the first directory in. If lib is omitted or is of length one and is not a group writable directory, in interactive use the code offers to create a personal library tree the first element of Sys. For installs from a repository an attempt is made to install the packages in an order that respects their dependencies.
You are advised to run update. This section applies only to platforms where binary packages are available: R packages are primarily distributed as source packages, but binary packages a packaging up of the installed package are also supported, and the type most commonly used on Windows and by the CRAN builds for macOS. This function can install either type, either by downloading a file from a repository or from a Binaries and Sources Update file. Possible values of type are currently "source""mac.
For a binary install from a repository, the function checks for the availability of a source package on the same repository, and reports if the source package has a later version, or is available but no binary version is. This check can be suppressed by using. The action if there are source packages which are preferred but may contain code which needs to be compiled is controlled by getOption "install.
This has two purposes: A finer-grained locking is provided by the option --pkglock which creates a separate lock for each Binaries and Sources Update Finally locking and restoration on error can be suppressed Binaries and Sources Update --no-lock.
For a macOS or Windows binary install, no locking is done by default. Note that it is possible for the package installation to fail so badly that the lock directory is not removed: It makes use of a parallel makeso the make specified default make when R was built must be capable of supporting make -j n: For non-parallel installs this Binaries and Sources Update implemented via the timeout argument of system2: If no such command is available the timeout request is Binaries and Sources Update, with a warning.
For parallel installs a Error message from make indicates that timeout occurred. Timeouts during installation might leave lock directories behind and not restore previous versions. Some binary Linux distributions of R can be installed on a machine without the tools needed to install packages: In all of these, "LinkingTo" is omitted for binary packages.