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Maybe it was when Def Jux died. Seven or eight years ago, if you said you were into underground hip-hop, people knew exactly what you meant. It was no better or worse, but for many fans who craved more than what the radio had to offer, underground hip-hop was an extremely important scene.

The Best Binary guru viktor of So Far. Blueprint weaving clever everyman rhymes and RJD2 focusing his dusty funk formula to make perfect soundscapes for rapping. Following his breakout LP Shadows on the Binary guru viktorBrother Ali used the 8 songs of the Champion EP to release binary guru viktor focused blast of style and viewpoint, weaving battle rhymes, introspection, and clever songwriting over a set of deeply soulful cuts from steady collaborator Ant.

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Relieved of production duties, Doom was free to give one of his finest rap performances, a collection of some of his most off kilter rhymes and concepts. Compact in length, but sprawling binary guru viktor sonic scope, Beauty achieved the clever trick of simultaneously recalling two genres psychedelic rock and old school Hip-Hop without feeling derivative of either, creating a wholly organic, idiosyncratic binary guru viktor heavy on invention and surprises.

Ironically, this was the album that got Atmosphere heard outside of Minneapolis-St. Atmosphere brought an energy unlike any other. Iconic songs have a way of minimizing remembrances of the albums from which they came. The excitement comes with good reason: Though he would scarcely be able to make anything as concentrated in the wake of BelowBlu provided a strikingly developed sensibility that bred a slew of followers and continues to drive intense adoration.

The formation of Voltron. Albums like 3rd Eye Vision —the first full length to assemble all the members of the expansive Hieroglyphics crew: Del tha Funkee Homosapien, Souls of Mischief, Casual, Pep Love, and Domino—usually crumble under the weight of egos, disparate styles, and unfettered ambition.

Kool Keith, donning the alias of the titular Dr. Automator served up a series of ceaselessly inventive productions, fusing Hip-Hop, house, classical, jazz, and any sample not tied down into cohesively dark stew to complement the buffet of unconventional rhymes.

Though countless bizarre visions have populated iTunes playlists since Dr. Octagonecologyst hit shelves over 15 years ago, few artists have ever done weird with as much gusto and dedication as Keith and Automator.

We probably have them to thank for Lil B. With so binary guru viktor rap crews trying so hard to be something, sound a certain way, or jump on some new wave, Dilated Peoples always just made hip-hop. With two legendary underground producers splitting duties on both the boards and the mic, it would be easy to expect a product that fails to live binary guru viktor to lofty expectations.

In Champion Soundmaestros Dilla and Madlib stuck binary guru viktor their strengths and crafted 19 tracks of dusty, dirty headbangers that strove for nothing higher than sheer bump.

This slept-on Chicago trio had something special binary guru viktor their debut. Denizen Kane and Qwazaar both held their own and stole the show at points, but it was Qwel who really provided the spark that made this album next level. The album is laced with jazzy production from DJ Natural and an always sharp and poetic take on the backpacks, graf, train rides, cyphers, and everything that this underground crew lived and loved. Unlike some group albums that sound like three separate artists pasting verses together, these guys seemed to all be on the same exact page.

On their second album, Jedi Mind Tricks laid out the blueprint that would for better or for worse define the rest of their career to date and carve out a path for a coterie of likeminded emcees to follow. Though they would achieve greater levels of polish on later albums, JMT never again reached the rush of blood to the head exhilaration that Violent By Design provided on each listen.

God Loves Ugly is a clear turning point for Atmosphere. Instead of the raw, unrefined sound of their earlier work, the duo binary guru viktor to sound like professionals. In a lot of cases, this is the falling off point—the point when old fans get bitter and that magic touch of binary guru viktor favorite independent artist gets lost.

Instead, they kept all the things fans loved binary guru viktor their first two albums and shined them up. The sound of the bitter, intelligent underground. Sharply written, expertly binary guru viktor rhymes, and dizzying multisyllabic displays were spread across 24 tracks that of binary guru viktor, jazz inflected beats.

Featuring dense, caustic rhymes and bristling, cacophonous production to match, Fantastic Damage articulated a vision of NY old and new, bemoaning the lost morals of a bygone era while succumbing to the paranoia of the new age.

It is an album both intensely political and deeply personal, revealing further layers on each listen—reasons it endures 10 years on. As Rawkus rode a binary guru viktor of singles and the aforementioned full length debut of Company Flow to indie prominence, an intrepid duo of young Brooklynite emcees united to record an album that set the table for conscious rap that followed years later.

With jazzy production reminiscent of their progenitors the Native Tongues and rhymes fully grounded in the present, Mos Def and Talib Kweli crafted an album that is often as beautiful and poignant as binary guru viktor is head nod binary guru viktor.

Mos and Talib at their earliest were also at their most focused, brutally lucid and focused in ways that would escape the former as time passed and would box the latter into an image that he has alternated between embracing and rejecting. Black Star never preaches, never overstays its welcome, and delivers a concentrated mission statement for two developing artists and an entire segment of Hip-Hop. As a solo artist and as a part of the storied Hieroglyphics crew, Del the Funky Homosapien had developed a name and a binary guru viktor following for himself throughout the first decade of his career.

Its seldom a fun listen, but it is crucial to contributing any sense of history to the majority of the selections on this list. Shouldering high expectations after his touted signing to Def Jux, Long Island wordsmith Aesop Rock delivered a career defining statement in Labor Daysan album that expanded on his trademark abstraction while dipping further into his favorite themes modern labor, the effects of city living on the psyche, artistic creation and a kind of lucidity nonexistent on previous releases.

Sporting an inventive, cinematic palette of sounds from Def Jux label head El-P, Vein featured the poignant, witty, and often startlingly bleak observations of Harlemite rappers Vordul Mega and Vast Aire. Ox became quick critical darlings while showing that traditional concerns of Hip-Hop could be filtered through previously unused lenses and likely were so highly regarded precisely because they pulled off this difficult trick. Here are the 30 best underground hip-hop albums. Hit next or click the picture to read on… Related: The Best Albums binary guru viktor So Far Brother Ali — Champion EP Following his breakout LP Shadows on the SunBrother Ali used the 8 songs of the Champion EP to release a focused blast of style and viewpoint, weaving battle rhymes, introspection, and clever songwriting over a set of deeply soulful cuts from steady collaborator Ant.

J-Live — All of the Above On his second full length LP, teacher binary guru viktor day and rapper by night J-Live put together a set of clever tracks, well-produced tracks that set off a flare for all would be conscious emcees: Viktor Vaughn — Vaudeville Villain In the midst of a creative flood that ultimately comprised 6 albums in three years, MF Doom released Viktor Vaughn, a sci-fi tinged take on his already loopy saturday morning cartoon style.

Hieroglyphics — 3rd Eye Vision The formation of Voltron. Jaylib — Champion Sound With two legendary underground producers splitting duties on both the boards and the mic, it would be easy to expect a product that fails to live up to lofty expectations. Jedi Mind Tricks — Violent By Design On their second album, Jedi Mind Tricks laid out the blueprint that would for better or for worse define the rest of their career to date and carve out a path for a coterie of likeminded emcees to follow.

Deltron — Deltron As a solo artist and as a part of the storied Hieroglyphics crew, Del the Funky Homosapien had developed a name and a strong following for himself throughout the first binary guru viktor of his career.

Aesop Rock — Labor Days Shouldering binary guru viktor expectations after his touted binary guru viktor to Def Jux, Long Island wordsmith Aesop Rock delivered a career defining binary guru viktor in Labor Daysan album that expanded on his trademark abstraction while binary guru viktor further into his favorite themes binary guru viktor labor, the effects of city living on the psyche, artistic creation and a kind of lucidity binary guru viktor on previous releases.

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Russian formalism was a school of literary criticism in Russia from the s to the s. It includes the work of a number of highly influential Russian and Soviet scholars such as Viktor Shklovsky , Yuri Tynianov , Vladimir Propp , Boris Eichenbaum , Roman Jakobson , Boris Tomashevsky , Grigory Gukovsky who revolutionised literary criticism between and the s by establishing the specificity and autonomy of poetic language and literature.

Russian formalism exerted a major influence on thinkers like Mikhail Bakhtin and Yuri Lotman , and on structuralism as a whole. The movement's members had a relevant influence on modern literary criticism, as it developed in the structuralist and post-structuralist periods.

Under Stalin it became a pejorative term for elitist art. Russian formalism was a diverse movement, producing no unified doctrine, and no consensus amongst its proponents on a central aim to their endeavours. In fact, "Russian Formalism" describes two distinct movements: Petersburg and the Moscow Linguistic Circle. The term "formalism" was first used by the adversaries of the movement, and as such it conveys a meaning explicitly rejected by the Formalists themselves.

In the words of one of the foremost Formalists, Boris Eichenbaum: It might have been convenient as a simplified battle cry but it fails, as an objective term, to delimit the activities of the "Society for the Study of Poetic Language.

Russian formalism is distinctive for its emphasis on the functional role of literary devices and its original conception of literary history. Russian Formalists advocated a "scientific" method for studying poetic language, to the exclusion of traditional psychological and cultural-historical approaches. As Erlich points out, "It was intent upon delimiting literary scholarship from contiguous disciplines such as psychology, sociology, intellectual history, and the list theoreticians focused on the 'distinguishing features' of literature, on the artistic devices peculiar to imaginative writing" The New Princeton Encyclopedia Two general principles underlie the Formalist study of literature: To achieve these objectives several models were developed.

The formalists agreed on the autonomous nature of poetic language and its specificity as an object of study for literary criticism.

Their main endeavor consisted in defining a set of properties specific to poetic language, be it poetry or prose, recognizable by their "artfulness" and consequently analyzing them as such. This approach strips the literary artifact from its connection with the author, reader, and historical background. A clear illustration of this may be provided by the main argument of one of Viktor Shklovsky 's early texts, "Art as Device" Iskusstvo kak priem , Shklovsky's main objective in "Art as Device" is to dispute the conception of literature and literary criticism common in Russia at that time.

Broadly speaking, literature was considered, on the one hand, to be a social or political product, whereby it was then interpreted in the tradition of the great critic Belinsky as an integral part of social and political history. On the other hand, literature was considered to be the personal expression of an author's world vision, expressed by means of images and symbols.

In both cases, literature is not considered as such, but evaluated on a broad socio-political or a vague psychologico-impressionistic background. The aim of Shklovsky is therefore to isolate and define something specific to literature or "poetic language": Formalists do not agree with one another on exactly what a device or "priem" is, nor how these devices are used or how they are to be analyzed in a given text.

The central idea, however, is more general: Shklovsky, however, insisted that not all artistic texts de-familiarize language, and that some of them achieve defamiliarization ostranenie by manipulating composition and narrative.

The Formalist movement attempted to discriminate systematically between art and non-art. Therefore, its notions are organized in terms of polar oppositions. One of the most famous dichotomies introduced by the mechanistic Formalists is a distinction between story and plot, or fabula and " sjuzhet ". Story, fabula, is a chronological sequence of events, whereas plot, sjuzhet, can unfold in non-chronological order.

The events can be artistically arranged by means of such devices as repetition, parallelism, gradation, and retardation. The mechanistic methodology reduced literature to a variation and combination of techniques and devices devoid of a temporal, psychological, or philosophical element. Shklovsky very soon realized that this model had to be expanded to embrace, for example, contemporaneous and diachronic literary traditions Garson Disappointed by the constraints of the mechanistic method some Russian Formalists adopted the organic model.

An artefact, like a biological organism, is not an unstructured whole; its parts are hierarchically integrated. Hence the definition of the device has been extended to its function in text.

The analogy between biology and literary theory provided the frame of reference for genre studies and genre criticism.

The most widely known work carried out in this tradition is Vladimir Propp 's "Morphology of the Folktale" Having shifted the focus of study from an isolated technique to a hierarchically structured whole, the organic Formalists overcame the main shortcoming of the mechanists. Still, both groups failed to account for the literary changes which affect not only devices and their functions but genres as well.

The diachronic dimension was incorporated into the work of the systemic Formalists. The main proponent of the "systemo-functional" model was Yury Tynyanov. Since literature constitutes part of the overall cultural system, the literary dialectic participates in cultural evolution.

As such, it interacts with other human activities, for instance, linguistic communication. The communicative domain enriches literature with new constructive principles. In response to these extra-literary factors the self-regulating literary system is compelled to rejuvenate itself constantly. Even though the systemic Formalists incorporated the social dimension into literary theory and acknowledged the analogy between language and literature the figures of author and reader were pushed to the margins of this paradigm.

The figures of author and reader were likewise downplayed by the linguistic Formalists Lev Jakubinsky and Roman Jakobson. The adherents of this model placed poetic language at the centre of their inquiry. As Warner remarks, "Jakobson makes it clear that he rejects completely any notion of emotion as the touchstone of literature. For Jakobson, the emotional qualities of a literary work are secondary to and dependent on purely verbal, linguistic facts" Practical language is used in day-to-day communication to convey information.

In poetic language, according to Lev Jakubinsky, "the practical goal retreats into background and linguistic combinations acquire a value in themselves". When this happens language becomes de-familiarized and utterances become poetic'" Steiner, "Russian Formalism" Eichenbaum, however, criticised Shklovsky and Jakubinsky for not disengaging poetry from the outside world completely, since they used the emotional connotations of sound as a criterion for word choice.

This recourse to psychology threatened the ultimate goal of formalism to investigate literature in isolation. A definitive example of focus on poetic language is the study of Russian versification by Osip Brik. Apart from the most obvious devices such as rhyme , onomatopoeia , alliteration , and assonance , Brik explores various types of sound repetitions, e.

He ranks phones according to their contribution to the "sound background" zvukovoj fon attaching the greatest importance to stressed vowels and the least to reduced vowels. As Mandelker indicates, "his methodological restraint and his conception of an artistic 'unity' wherein no element is superfluous or disengaged, … serves well as an ultimate model for the Formalist approach to versification study" In "A Postscript to the Discussion on Grammar of Poetry," Jakobson redefines poetics as "the linguistic scrutiny of the poetic function within the context of verbal messages in general, and within poetry in particular" He fervently defends linguists' right to contribute to the study of poetry and demonstrates the aptitude of the modern linguistics to the most insightful investigation of a poetic message.

The legitimacy of "studies devoted to questions of metrics or strophics, alliterations or rhymes, or to questions of poets' vocabulary" is hence undeniable Linguistic devices that transform a verbal act into poetry range "from the network of distinctive features to the arrangement of the entire text" Jakobson Jakobson opposes the view that "an average reader" uninitiated into the science of language is presumably insensitive to verbal distinctions: A systematic inquiry into the poetic problems of grammar and the grammatical problems of poetry is therefore justifiable; moreover, the linguistic conception of poetics reveals the ties between form and content indiscernible to the literary critic Jakobson Roman Jakobson described literature as "organized violence committed on ordinary speech.

In other words, for the Formalists, literature is set apart because it is just that: The use of devices such as imagery, rhythm, and meter is what separates "Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, exhibit number one is what the seraphs, the misinformed, simple, noble-winged seraphs, envied.

Look at this tangle of thorns Nabokov Lolita 9 ", from "the assignment for next week is on page eighty four. This estrangement serves literature by forcing the reader to think about what might have been an ordinary piece of writing about a common life experience in a more thoughtful way. A piece of writing in a novel versus a piece of writing in a fishing magazine. At the very least, literature should encourage readers to stop and look closer at scenes and happenings they otherwise might have skimmed through uncaring.

The reader is not meant to be able to skim through literature. When addressed in a language of estrangement, speech cannot be skimmed through. By forcing us into a dramatic awareness of language, literature refreshes these habitual responses and renders objects more perceptible" Eagleton 3. In the Soviet period under Joseph Stalin , the authorities further developed the term's pejorative associations to cover any art which used complex techniques and forms accessible only to the elite, rather than being simplified for "the people" as in socialist realism.

One of the sharpest critiques of the Formalist project was Leon Trotsky 's Literature and Revolution They are living people, with a crystallized psychology representing a certain unity, even if not entirely harmonious. This psychology is the result of social conditions" , According to this line of argument, the Formalists were accused of being politically reactionary because of such unpatriotic remarks as Shklovsky's quoted by Trotsky that "Art was always free of life, and its color never reflected the color of the flag which waved over the fortress of the City" Thus, Trotsky's critique of the Formalist approach to the study of literature, in fact, can be taken as a precursor to the Soviet regime's policy of government control of artistic expression under Socialist Realism.

Russian formalism was not a uniform movement; it comprised diverse theoreticians whose views were shaped through methodological debate that proceeded from the distinction between poetic and practical language to the overarching problem of the historical-literary study.

It is mainly with this theoretical focus that the Formalist School is credited even by its adversaries such as Yefimov:. The diverging and converging forces of Russian formalism gave rise to the Prague school of structuralism in the mids and provided a model for the literary wing of French structuralism in the s and s. There is no direct historical relationship between New Criticism and Russian Formalism, each having developed at around the same time RF: However, despite this, there are several similarities: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article has an unclear citation style. The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation and footnoting. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Journal of the History of Ideas. International Journal of Russian Studies 6 January Archetypal criticism Biographical criticism Chicago school Cultural materialism Darwinian criticism Deconstruction Descriptive poetics Ecocriticism Feminist criticism Formalism Geocriticism Literary particularism Marxist criticism New Criticism New Historicism Postcolonial criticism Psychoanalytic criticism Reader-response criticism Russian formalism Semiotic criticism Sociological criticism Source criticism Thing theory.

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