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The first human settlement in the History of Dubai was in approximately BCE , when the area was inhabited by nomadic cattle herders. In the 3rd century CE, the area came under the control of the Sassanid Empire which lasted until the 7th century, when the Umayyad Caliphate took control and introduced Islam in the area. The area was sustained by fishing and pearl diving for a thousand years, with the first records of the town being made in when the Bani Yas clan established it as a dependency of Abu Dhabi.
Dubai became a separate Sheikhdom in , when the Al-Maktoum dynasty of the Bani Yas clan initially from Abu Dhabi took it over peacefully. The invention of artificial pearls in and the Great Depression in caused a collapse in the international pearl market, which resulted in the emir Sheikh Saeed looking for an alternative source of income and inviting Indian and Iranian traders to settle there without paying any tax and Dubai becoming one of the leading re-export ports in the world.
In , oil was discovered in Dubai, which changed the country beyond recognition and led to Dubai becoming the vibrant, modern, business-centred city. Records of the area where the emirate of Dubai is situated are very rare for any period before the 18th century.
During the expansion of the Sheikh Zayed Road between and , remnants of a mangrove swamp were uncovered which were dated to approximately BCE. As it became more inhabitable, nomadic cattle herders used the area to live and herd in. For the next about — years there are no more details, probably because of the desertification, insignificance, and remoteness of the area, until the area came part of the "Maka" satrapy , the southern most satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire , and followed by the Sassanian Empire , the last pre-Islamic Iranian Empire,  several hundred years later in the 3rd century CE.
The Umayyads  regarded as the first Muslim dynasty,  introduced Islam to the area in the 7th century and sparked the revitalization of the area, opening up trade routes supported by fishing and pearl diving to eastern regions such as modern-day Pakistan and India, with reports of ships travelling as far as China to trade.
In the town was hit by a devastating smallpox outbreak which forced many to relocate east to the town of Deira, Dubai. This also had the side effect of the area becoming known as the Trucial States. The success of the area led Sheikh Maktoum to sign an exclusive business deal with the British in , making Dubai a British protectorate , and in , granted full tax exemption for all foreign traders.
Merchants from Lingah looked across to the Arab shore of the Persian Gulf finally making their homes in Dubai. They continued to trade with Lingah, however, as do many of the dhows in Dubai Creek today, and they named their district Bastakiya , after the Bastak region in southern Persia.
After various rulers, Sheikh Saeed bin Maktoum bin Hasher Al Maktoum who became Ruler in ,  was the first Ruler to rule for a substantial period of time and is regarded by many as one of the fathers of Dubai. The emergence of artificial pearls had begun to hit the economy of Dubai, and coupled with the effects of the depression caused the Sheikh to explore other opportunities for expansion.
This resulted in the emergence of Dubai as the premier re-export business port, whereby goods are imported into a duty-free port and immediately exported to another market. The merchant class in Dubai played a key role in restructuring the economy and government decision-making in the pre-oil era of Dubai's development.
Today merchants play a fundamental role in economic affairs and the political structure. In addition, again they have taken on roles as service suppliers, urban planners, culture mediators, and internationalists representing the region throughout the world. Dubai suffered economically after due to the collapse of the pearl industry, the Great Depression of the s, and the loss of extensive trade networks during World War II.
Until the surge of oil revenues in the late s, political instability and merchant unrest existed and constituted an organized attempt to subvert British control and the ruling Al-Maktoum family. African slavery was practiced until the s. The uprising of in Dubai was the culmination of a decade of grievances and minor rebellions against the autocratic rule of Shaykh Sa'id bin Maktum ruled In the s the Trucial Coast was characterized by great poverty resulting primarily from a decline in the pearl trade.
Much of the initiative for reform sprang from an attempt to ameliorate economic conditions—the leaders of the movement having previously been successful pearl merchants. The new government established in October lasted only a few months before Shaykh Sa'id with Bedouin support was able to overthrow it in March The collapse of the reform movement is attributable to the role played by British agents and the weakness of the political structure that was set up.
A dispute between Dubai and Abu Dhabi regarding their border escalated into armed conflict between the two states, with Dubai attacking a number of Abu Dhabi towns in the country's interior. Arbitration by the British in resulted in the creation of a buffer frontier running south eastwards from the coast at Ras Hasian. A formal compromise was not reached until , eight years after the creation of the UAE. Rashid al Maktoum is widely regarded as the driving force behind the expansion of Dubai, causing its massive expansion, with the aid of the discovery of oil.
In , a border dispute between Dubai and Abu Dhabi on their northern border erupted into war between the two states   and forced the involvement of the British and the subsequent creation of a buffer zone which resulted in a temporary ceasefire. The major turning point in the history and fortunes of Dubai was the discovery of oil in Once the first shipment of oil was made in , the future of Dubai as an autonomous state was secured,  and its ability to dictate policy in later years to the UAE was cemented.
Britain left the Persian Gulf in the early part of , having announced their intentions in , causing Dubai and Abu-Dhabi, in conjunction with five other emirates to form the United Arab Emirates. To enable this, Abu Dhabi and Dubai are the only emirates who have veto power over matters of national importance, whereas the other emirates only have a vote on such matters.
The Persian Gulf War of , in which Dubai as part of the UAE provided military aid to the coalition, unsettled the economy,  however during the middle of the s this stabilised and many foreign trading communities moved their businesses to Dubai. Dubai continued to foster political alignment with the western world and during the Invasion of Iraq , they provided refueling bases to allied forces in the Jebel Ali Free Zone as they did during the Persian Gulf War.
The success of the Jebel Ali free zone caused the development of clusters of new free zones, including Dubai Internet City ,  an internet technology area with ownership and tax related benefits, Dubai Media City ,  a tax-free zone to increase Dubai's presence in the worldwide media, and Dubai Maritime City ,  which will have many facilities, including waterfronts and harbours.
In the past decades, Dubai has become known for its successful building projects, including the [Burj Al Arab]], the world's tallest freestanding hotel,  The Palm Islands , a construction of three artificial islands in the shape of the date palm,  on which residential and commercial property will be built and The World Islands , a massive man-made archipelago of islands in the shape of the world,  and [Burj Khalifa]], which is the world's tallest man-made structure.
The economic depression has hit Dubai extremely hard,   due to its dependence on tourism and building which has led to many newspaper reports of construction slowing and in some cases stopping altogether.
Dubai has also been in the news for its attitudes towards adultery, which are seen as harsh in the Western world, with cases forcing the intervention of some governments to help its citizens. Despite the international turmoil over the cost of oil, Dubai is already considered to be the Hong Kong of the Middle East.
During the 21st century, Dubai may have to implement policies that move away from globalization and toward localization to conserve their energy resources, provide local jobs to citizens of the United Arab Emirates instead of foreign citizens, and maintain their local decision-making authority.
Zoning policies would be adjusted by Dubai's municipal government to promote resource conservation and eliminate sprawl. While Dubai has opened its doors to tourists by permitting non-Muslims to drink alcoholic beverages and view erotica , a lot of these services are being used by the foreign-born workers who take jobs away from legal residents of the UAE.
The last remaining oil deposits in the United Arab Emirates will run out at the end of As of February , Dubai along with the rest of the United Arab Emirates only has a reserve supply of 44 billion barrels of crude petroleum. The development of a broader manufacturing industry may create more jobs for women; enhancing the role that women play in Dubai's male-dominated society in addition to the rest of the United Arab Emirates.
In addition to the long running dispute between Abu-Dhabi and Dubai, Dubai was also involved in a dispute with Sharjah with regards to their legal boundaries. Before the British left, there were no exact boundaries defined between the Trucial States; however, with the discovery of oil needing boundaries to be decided for concession reasons, Britain was required to define the boundaries. Tripp, the British political agent, made declarations between and defining the boundaries.
Although the rulers of both Dubai and Sharjah had agreed in to accept the rulings made, Dubai's ruler declined to accept the decision. Even after the formation of the UAE, neither state had agreed on the boundaries and hence, on 30 November they signed an arbitration compromise under the auspices of the Supreme Council of the Federation. The following is a list of rulers of Dubai, Al-Maktoum dynasty , going back at least to Having attended school in the United Kingdom , he became part of the everyday running of the country.
He is widely known for being involved with horse-racing and his charitable donations,  along with his credit for advancing Dubai's infrastructure and economy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archived from the original PDF on Uses authors parameter link [ unreliable source? Archived from the original on The Iran Chamber Society. Archived from the original on September 16, Sheikh Mohammed Official Website.
Check date values in: Archived from the original on 5 January Archived from the original PDF on October 4, Archived from the original on 8 January Records of Dubai The Palm Islands Website. Archived from the original on 18 July Archived from the original on June 8, Retrieved 12 July US Energy Information Administration. Determining boundaries in a conflicting world. Interpretation and Revision of International Boundary Decisions.
Dubai Official Government Portal. History Timeline Geography Government Culture. Grand Mosque Hindu Temple St. Mary's Catholic Church St. Francis of Assisi Catholic Church. Towns Buildings Places Structures. Retrieved from " https: All articles lacking reliable references Articles lacking reliable references from June CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter CS1 errors: Views Read Edit View history.